Pakistan Journal of Scientific Research <p>Pakistan Journal of Scientific Research (PJOSR) is a peer-reviewed, scientific and technical journal owned and published by the <strong>Pakistan Association for the Advancement of Science</strong>, Lahore, Pakistan<em>. PJOSR</em> publishes high-quality original scientific articles dealing with the use of analytic and quantitative tools for modelling, analysis, design and engineering management in Engineering and Technology. </p> en-US (Ms Saima Sheikh) (Dr Muhammad Nasir ) Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 PSO-Based LQR Gain Selection for Stand-Alone PV System <p>PSO-based LQR gain selection for the stand-alone PV system. In this paper, DC to DC and DC to AC converters are used, including a boost converter and a PWM single-phase full bridge inverter, respectively. The purpose of these power converters is to fulfill the desired results acquired from the PV, a source. The voltages generated by the PV are regulated using a boost converter that steps the voltages up to the desired level. These DC voltages are converted to AC voltages by passing them through a DC-to-AC converter to supply the load with power, also known as an inverter. Similarly, the battery, as another source in parallel to the PV system, is used to keep the hold on the charges/ energy. A switching topology is used to deal with all modes of conditions into which this system is driven. The power is supplied to and from the PV to the load, to the battery, and vice versa. Furthermore, an algorithm and a controller are used to overcome the fluctuations caused in the voltages. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). PSO helps the LQR set the gain to supply the load with constant and desired voltages by providing the best values. Eventually, an impedance model of this entire project is designed to make comparisons and to get fruitful results.</p> Afaq Afzal, Mureed Hussain, Muhammad Shaheer Amir Bajwa, Taimoor Ahsan Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Fault Detection of Electrical Machines Rolling Element and Prediction through AI <p>The research examines how Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning can identify a minor rolling element problem (hole and scratch). Keeping track of a machine's health makes it possible to spot problems before they become costly, unscheduled production process shutdowns. In the study, a multi-stage decision mechanism was built using the convolution neural network (CNN) model.</p> Mureed Hussain, Ali Suqrat, Muhammad Shaheer Amir Bajwa, Kainat Fatima Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 IoT Based Distributive Control of Parallel Connected Sources in Stand-Alone Microgrid <p>Circulating currents in a DC micro-primary grid should be reduced to improve load distribution among sources and voltage management. Several centralized and decentralized control schemes have been proposed in the literature as remedies for the problem. A high bandwidth communication link can assist centralized design in achieving the desired result, but a single point of failure can negatively impact performance and reliability. Due to their ignorance of the parallel-connected sources, microgrids in decentralized designs cannot offer simultaneous current sharing and voltage management. This study solves the challenge with a distributed control system for parallel connected sources in a dc micro-grid<em>.</em></p> Mureed Hussain, Zhong Xeng, Muhammad Saad Mahmood, Muhammad Shaheer Amir Bajwa, Ali Raza Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Novel High Voltage Direct Current Transmission and Protection System <p>From the start of time, electricity has been transmitted using the traditional method of AC transmission over large distances. But using this transmission technique, there are many issues and disadvantages, including transmission losses and having an extremely small power factor due to transmission line material.&nbsp; To remedy these losses, researchers plan to devise another transmission system named a high voltage direct current (HVDC).&nbsp; Using the HVDC system, bulk power can be transmitted over a large distance without losses and with greater efficiency. Using this method, the cost is also improved, and the security is overwhelmed. The purpose is to devise such a system and simulate the HVDC system under various parameters of system protection and fault conditions. To simulate the research, MATLAB/SIMULINK tool is exploited and verified, which shows better performance than AC transmission.</p> Illeyun Zaman, Abdul Basit Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 System Design to Enhance the Efficiency of Power System Protection <p>There are several chances to enhance the effectiveness of power system protection with wide area monitoring (WAM). Some of these prospects and the driving force behind their growth are discussed in this essay. Monitoring the adequacy of relay characteristics, supervisory backup protection control, more intelligent and adaptive system protection, and developing a unique system integrity protection scheme are some ways. Because of the new issues facing the security of modern power systems, WAM presents the appealing potential for strengthening protection. It is getting more and harder to choose a relay which suits well for the loading circumstances and eventualities due to the increasingly diverse operating conditions of power systems. The oversight of protecting the backup help improve instrument for averting or reducing the scope of shutdowns since the malfunction of relays has led to the onset and progression of 70% of blackouts. Modern power networks are becoming increasingly interconnected and complicated, which has increased their susceptibility to large-scale disruptions and led to several recent shutdowns.</p> Joshua Wang, Syed Asad Hussain Shah Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 25 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000