COMPARATIVE STUDY TO DETECT ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN PROCESSED AND RAW MILK IN LAHORE
Keywords:Antibiotics, AMR, AMU, Milk, Antibiotic residues, β-lactams, tetracyclines
Antibiotics help animals and human beings live longer and healthier lives. But if antibiotics are used carelessly or inappropriately, or if the required withdrawal period is not understood, it's possible that treated animals' products will include unintended antibiotic residues. Many of these life-saving drugs are losing their efficacy as formerly vulnerable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi and microscopic-parasites) develop resistance. This phenomenon is called “antimicrobial resistance” or AMR. Antimicrobial usage (AMU) is a significant risk factor for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) development. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of β-lactam and tetracyclines antibiotic residues in raw (cow and buffalo) milk and processed (UHT and pasteurized) milk in District Lahore. For that purpose, a total of 200 milk samples, containing 100 raw milk samples and 100 processed milk samples were collected from 5 zones of Lahore. The samples were processed using Milk Antibiotic Residues Rapid Test (Bioeasy) for β-lactams and tetracyclines in the milk kit method which is based upon colloidal gold immunochromatography technology also known as lateral flow dipstick immunoassay. Among total of 200 milk samples, the results showed as 6.5% of milk samples were positive for only beta-lactams, 1.5% milk samples were positive for only tetracyclines, 9.5% milk samples exhibited dual positivity for both beta-lactams and tetracyclines, 8.5% milk samples demonstrated weak positive results for both antibiotics, and 74% milk samples were negative for beta-lactams and tetracyclines both. The calculated p-value (0.0004998) indicates a significant difference between the observed samples in terms of antibiotic residue presence by Fisher's exact test. These residues were more in the raw milk as compared to the processed milk. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before milking the animals and definite supervisions are necessary on application of these drugs as this is the serious healthcare concern in Lahore.
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