• A. N. Sajed


Cardio vascular disorders, modifiable risk factors, Non-modifiable risk factors, Heart diseases


Notwithstanding credible advances in cardiovascular health progress contributed by
scientific studies during the preceding few decades, cardiovascular disease (CVD) relics a large
number of deaths in developing as well as developed countries. Out of total of 161 articles screened.
87 articles were excluded based on the preliminary scrutiny of abstract and titles and the study was
restricted to remaining 74 articles to capture the most relevant literature. The risk factors of cardio
vascular diseases have been recognized as modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable
cardio- vascular risk factors involve tobacco usage, hypertension, elevated blood glucose,
dyslipidemia, overweight, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), unhealthy diet, alcohol intake, lack of
physical activity. The non modifiable cardio vascular risks are age, sex, family history and racial
locale. A public awareness of risk factors contributing cardio vascular disorders is imperative for
health of individuals and suggested to investigate time and again during life. Risk factors identified in
this research are sufficient markers of changes in heart health during aging process. In future, risk
factors of cardio vascular diseases should be included in secondary classes’ syllabi for the early
awareness and prevention of cardiovascular diseases in new generation. Public awareness should be
enhanced through print and electronic media. Annual, work place surveys are required to be conducted
for early identification of cardio vascular disorders in workers of government and private
institutions/sectors, an effort that should be done on the part of employers to retain healthy and high
quality employees.




How to Cite

A. N. Sajed. (2023). RISK DETERMINANTS THAT ESCALATE CARDIO VASCULAR DISORDERS. Pakistan Journal of Science, 74(4). Retrieved from https://pjosr.com/index.php/pjs/article/view/770