CROP WATER CONSUMPTION MODELLING AT OUTLET LEVEL BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
Keywords:Agriculture, Water Scarcity, Irrigation, SEBAL, Remote Sensing, Evapotranspiration,, Canal Outlets
The enlarged demand of water due to agriculture expansion, increasing industrial and domestic needs, compounded with climate change is causing scarcity of water globally and Pakistan is also facing same conditions. Due to limited availability of water, it is necessary to adopt global best practices being employed for sustainable agricultural water management. Remote sensing techniques are being intensively used around the globe with confidence to monitor the crops growth and crop water use. The aim of the research is to develop crop water consumption monitoring system at the outlet level to regulate irrigation water distribution at farm level. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) is used to develop pilot case study for year 2017-18 at a distributary canal command level named 5R-Yousafwala located in Sahiwal District. Crop classification based on Landsat-8 imagery was provided by Punjab Irrigation Department. Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 images were acquired for NDVI monitoring. Metrological data for Penman Monteith based evapotranspiration calculation was acquired from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Analogue cadastral maps of outlet command areas were converted to digital georeferenced format. The provided crop classification was verified after discussion with farmers during detailed field survey. In Rabi season of 2017-18, mean evapotranspiration (ET) actual was estimated about 352 mm, while in Kharif season of 2018, it was estimated as 425 mm. The crop water deficit was estimated as 36 % in rabi season and 30 % in kharif season. Irrigation share was only 37 % in Rabi season and 48% in Kharif season. Rainfall contributed 09 % in Rabi season and 30% in Kharif season. Groundwater was paramount contributor with 54 % share in rabi season while in Kharif season it contributed relatively minor share of 22%. The ET potential and ET actual fluctuate in all outlet commands due to the diverse crop cover and economic capacity to pump groundwater. The results could be proved very useful for irrigation department to monitor and reform the irrigation supplies at particular outlets by observing the crop demand, weather conditions and crop stage instead of monitoring outlet discharge only.
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