EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF MINERALS ON THE PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LACTATING CATTLE AND BUFFALO
Keywords:Mineral mixture, micro minerals, milk fever, macro minerals, milk yield
A significant part of a complete dairy feeding program is the mineral-vitamin component. Physiologically, minerals are involved in reproduction, lactation, cow/calf health during pregnancy and cow recovery after calving and general herd health. Highly productive dairy animals have much greater needs for minerals and vitamins than low-producing.Concentrations of minerals and
vitamins in feeds can be extremely variable. Dairy animals commonly need 3 vitamins and 17 mineral for their optimal productivity. Even the deficiency of any of these can result in health, reproduction and milk production problems. The antioxidant, vitamin E and carotene are beneficial in reducing mastitis. Vitamins (D, E, C and carotene) and minerals (Cu, Zn, and Se) are needed for enhanced immune response.Almost all the members of B.comlex group, C vitamin K2 are synthesized in rumen
but ruminant diet should contain sufficient cobalt for B12 synthesis. Vitamin A is neither synthesized in the body nor contributed by bacteria and it is the only vitamin, which may be deficient supply under many conditions. Therefore its supply seems to be critical.Vitamin E content of forage is highly variable and is effective in reducing gossypol toxicity. Generally it is assumed that the dairy animals with functional rumen do not develop deficiency. Different research reports suggest the need for supplemental biotin, thiamin and niacin for dairy cattle. Pre-partum anionic diets should be supplemented to avoid Milk fever. High phosphorus diets do not improve milk production or reproduction but there is environmental concern from use of excess P. Manganese has its role in ovulation and fertility of dairy animals. Grazing dairy animals should have access to high quality freechoice mineral mixtures. Mineral and Vitamin supplementation should especially be managed before the periods of increased trace mineral demand such as calving, joining, dry-off and growth.
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