Conflict of Interest
Conflicts of interest exist when an author (or the author’s institution), reviewer, editor, editorial board member has financial or personal relationships with other individuals or organizations that could inappropriately influence his or her actions in a way that creates bias. The existence of such a relationship does not necessarily represent a true conflict of interest. The potential for conflicts of interest can exist whether or not an individual believes that the relationship affects their judgment. Financial relationships (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patents) are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and are most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, and the scientific value of the research.
Conflict of interest requires all of the authors and reviewers involved to disclose any financial and/or personal relationships with other people or organizations that can result in bias regarding their work. Financial conflicts include, for example, employment, stock ownership, consultancies, paid expert testimony, honoraria, travel grants, and patents or patent applications, all within a duration of 3 years of beginning the work that has been submitted. We note that the editors must also disclose conflict of interest if there is any.